C4™ was extensively studied in multi-site research trial investigating its association with HIV/STI risk reduction, including PrEP initiation and adherence.
The C4™ approach can be used in research for other health domains—contact us if you are interested in using this approach in your research.
- Wheeler DP, Lucas J, Wilton L, Nelson LE, Hucks‐Ortiz C, Watson CC, Hutchinson C, Mayer KH, Kuo I, Magnus M, Beauchamp G, Shoptaw S, Emel LM, Chen YQ, Hightow‐Weidman L, Fields SD. Building effective multilevel HIV prevention partnerships with Black men who have sex with men: experience from HPTN 073, a pre‐exposure prophylaxis study in three US cities. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018; 21(S7):e25181
- Wilton L, Nelson LE, Beauchamp G, Magnus M. Shoptaw S, Hightow-Weidman L, Chen Y, Lucas J, Piwowar-Manning E, Hendrix C, Marzinke M, Hucks-Ortiz C, Mayer KH, Fields SD, Wheeler DP. Structural barriers, mental health and PrEP initiation/non-initiation and adherence among Black MSM in 3 US cities. HPTN 073 study. 2017 International AIDS Conference, Paris, France.
- Wheeler DP, Fields SD, Nelson LE, Wilton L. Hightow-Weidman L, Shoptaw S, Magnus M, Beauchamp G, Watkins P, Mayer KH. HPTN 073: PrEP uptake and use by Black men who have sex with men in 3 US cities. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections, Boston, United States of America.
- Hightow-Weidman L, Magnus M, Shoptaw S, Emel L, Beauchamp G, Piwowar-Manning E, Mayer KH, Nelson LE, Watkins P, Fields SD, Wheeler DP. Significant health comorbidities in Black men who have sex with men presenting for a US PrEP study. 2016 International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa.
- Hucks-Ortiz C, Lucas JP, Wheeler DP, Fields SD, The HPTN Black Caucus for the HPTN 073 Protocol Team. HPTN 073: Successful engagement of Black MSM into a culturally relevant clinical trial for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). 2016 International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa.
- Desrosiers A, Levy M, Dright A et al. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of a Culturally-Tailored Counseling Intervention to Increase Uptake of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in Washington, DC. AIDS Behav (2018).
The C4™ model is a self-determination theory-based intervention approach. It is supported by a vast evidence-base on the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions that are grounded in self-determination theory.
For more comprehensive look at self-determination theory research go to the official website, selfdeterminationtheory.org.